Cancer urology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in both men and women. Urologists have knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology related to the urinary tract and reproductive organs. Furthermore, they are trained to identify and treat prostate cancer, which is a major problem among men. With proper screening and detection methods, urologists can help detect cancer early and provide treatments that can potentially save lives.

In order to practice in this specialty, doctors must also have certain certifications that vary by area of expertise and state law. These include the American Board of Urology (ABI), which is the leading credentialing organization for urologists; members must pass rigorous examinations to earn certification from ABI.